UNIT FOUR: SAFETY FIRST (pp.106-134)
Introduce the theme of the unit through questions and answers around the pictures. Then refer the students to the project outcome on p.132.
LISTEN AND CONSIDER (pp.106-112)
Language outcomes (p.107)
Let students skim through the language outcomes preview in order to be aware of the objectives of this section.
Getting started (p.107)
The are many possible answers.
Let’s hear it (p.108)
Task one (p.108)
There are many possible answers to the questions. Students don’t have to agree on a particular answer.
A. T B. NM C.NM D.T
Task two (p.108)
The interview is about the types of food consumers prefer buying. According to the market researcher, the preference goes to organic foods for two main reasons. First, they think they are safer to eat than both GMFS and conventonial food. Second, GMFs have received bad publicity. For the market researcher, the issue of whether or not GMFS are safe to man’s health and the environment has not been settled. So the debate about GMFs is likely to continue in the future.
Around the text (pp.108-110)
Grammar explorer I (p.108)
Degrees of certainty Positive statement Negative statement
Categorical certainty GMS will certainly disappear.
Possibility They may disappear.
They can have a comeback. They may not disappear.
Remote possibility They might have harmful effects The debate could continue. They might not have harmful effects
Remote possibilty:In the near future, advertisements for fast foods might be banned and health warnings might be written on the packages of processed food.
Possibility: The Algerian government may impose an eco-tax on polluting industries next year. = It is possible that the Algerian government will impose an eco-tax on polluting industries next year.
Flavourings and colourings may cause irritabilty and skin irritations .=
It is possible that flavourings and colourings will cause irritability and skin irritations.
Probability: Most Algerian consumers will probably boycott products which are not environmentally safe. = It is probable /likely that most Algerian consumers will boycott products which are not environmentally safe.
Certainty: Food safety will (certainly) be one of the major problems in the next decade.
In the future people won’t eat as much processed food as they do now.
Grammar explorer II (p.109)
1.A 2.B and D 3. C
Task 1 (p.110)
The art of cooking requires the use of garlic. Of course, the eating or consumption of garlic is generally not approved of. Working beside someone who has eaten garlic is as bad as sitting beside someone who smokes. But while smoking is definitely bad for you, there is no doubt that eating garlic is good for your health and your high blood pressure. We are likely to see more ‘No smoking’ signs, but we won’t see an ‘No breathing’ signs for garlic eaters.
Cultivating and exporting garlic has become big business now that so many people use it for flavouring meat and for making medicine that reduces cholesterol. People often buy it when they do their shopping. Being a garlic eater is something to be proud of and shows that you enjoy healthy living.
Vocabulary explorer (pp.110-111)
Consume: consumer, consumption, consuming
Advertise: advertising, advertisement
Produce: producer, production
Promote: promoter, promotion, promoting
Compete: competitor, competition
Manage: manager, management
Farm: farmer, farming
Task 2 (p.110)
1.consumers 2. consumption 3. production
4. advertisements 5. advertising 6. rejection 7.reaction
Task 3 (p.111)
1. with 2. from 3. from 4. about 5. to 6. for 7. from 8. of
Pronunciation and spelling (p.111)
Task 1 (p.111)
Advertise (v) AdVERtisement (n)
ASSOciate (v) AssoCIAtion (n)
COmmerce (v) CoMMERcial (n)
REgulate (v) ReguLAtion (n)
PUblicize (v) pubLIcity ( n )
Task 2 (p.111)
Make sure the students are aware of the stress shift patterns.
Task 3 (111)
Use weak forms of the past modals in bold.
Think, pair, share (p.112)
We may live a totally different life in the next few decades because modernity has brought with it a new life style. Nowadays people take less time to eat, go to fast food shops to gulp hamburgers, hot dogs and chips. In the future, we might have conventional food being replaced by food substitutes like pills, or we might get our nutrients out of crude oil; that would shorten meal times even further. Conversely, many people are prepared to spend more time shopping in supermarkets (and even on the Internet). A lot of them are now becoming shopaholics, buying products that they don’t really need. Their number will rise further in the near future.
This is partly because it is much easier to shop, especially as more and more supermarkets are equipped with fast serving cash desks which prevent long queues. In the future, shop assistants may be replaced by robots which could actually do the same job as them, with greater efficiency and in less time. That of course would probably have side effects like an increase in unemployment.
Leisure will also change, because of the development of all sorts of electronic devices, like the multimedia, cable television and other contrivances. People will be less tempted to go out for a film, a play or a concert. They’ll pay even less visits to each other because the cell phone is such a convenient way to keep in touch. And what to say about the Internet through which people can instantly chat with and watch each other via the web cam! Alternatively, we’ll have more free time to enjoy holidays at lower prices in distant places. But is this life of the future the kind of life people would like to have? Couldn’t modernity preserve social relations and be a means to an end rather than an end in itself?
READ AND CONSIDER (pp. 113- 120)
Language outcomes (p.113)
Let the students preview the objectives of the section in the language outcomes reminder.
Getting started (p.113)
Students are free to answer the way they like provided they justify their answers. They don’t have to agree.
Taking a closer look (p.113)
Task 1 (p.113)
A.T B.T C. T D.T E. F
Task 2 (p.113)
Students are free to express their different opinions as long as they justify them.
Task 3 (p.113)
Before setting the students to task, refer them to the Coping box on page 68.
Line 2: They = people - Line 3: they= people - Line 4: they = people - Line 5: this = when we eat enough food for the exercise we take - Line 7: they= people - Line 9: their = people - Line 10: them = fatty and sugary foods - Line 12: their = a large number of people - Line 12: those people - Line17: this (study)= a recent study - Line 18: their = parents - Line 19: they= children - Line 26: ones= slim people - Line 27: their= obese people - Line: 33, which=loss of energy - Line 36, they=governments
Around the text (pp.115-118)
Grammar explorer I (p.115)
The text belongs to expository prose. It raises an issue a problem and suggests a solution to it. The author uses the present simple because s/he presents facts which are regarded as true at all times.
Grammar explorer II (pp.115-116)
A. supposition/hypothesis/condition If indicates that the author is just making a supposition.
C. The main clauses are: They won’t get enough energy./ They will put on weight. The subordinate clauses are the clauses which start with if.
D. The main clauses can stand alone whereas the subordinate ones depend on the main clauses for their meaning.
If you eat rotten food, you will have a serious indigestion. If you have a serious indigestion, you will go and see a doctor. If you go and see a doctor, he will hospitalize you for two to three weeks. If he hospitalizes you, you will lose your job. If you lose your job, you won’t earn enough money to buy good food. If you don’t have enough money to buy good food, you will eat rotten food.
Grammar explorer II (p.116)
Task 1 (p.116)
A. Sufficient/appropriate= enough
B. 1. If they eat too little food or the wrong kind of food, they won’t have enough energy.
2. If they eat too much food, they will put on weight.
3. If people eat too many products which contain a large amount of fat and sugar …, and too few products which provide them with enough quantities of fibre it is because of the many advertisements to which they are exposed.
4. A recent study shows that a large number of people who cannot manage to keep their energy balance are those who spend too much time in front of their T.V.sets.
C. much, many, a lot of, little no –at all …
D.See Grammar reference on pp.216-217.
Task 2 (p.117)
A. too much B. too much C. too few D. too much E. too many
F. too little G. too much H. too few I. too few
Grammar explorer III (p.117)
A. Have the students pick up the sentences. The link words express cause and effect
B. and See Grammar Reference pp.226-227.
Task 1 (p.117)
A. because B. because of, owing to, due to C. because, since
Task 2 (117)
There are many possible answers.
Vocabulary explorer (p.117)
Task 1 (p.118)
A.Salty, peppery, savoury, tasty tricky, greedy
B. easy, speedy, dirty, dusty, stuffy, slimy
Task 2 (p.118)
Life is becoming increasingly expensive. So when shoppers/ buyers do their shopping they are more likely to look at the price tags of the products than at anything else. Saving even a little money by buying poor quality goods helps people with a low budget to pay utility bills and the rent at the end of the month. These savings also help to purchase mobile phones for the loved ones
Pronunciation and spelling (p.119)
Task 1 (p.119)
Going supermarket need anything
Get , flour, oil, oranges, packets, biscuits, please
Need , flour , oil, bottles, juice
No, said, packets biscuits
Task 2 (p.119)
Need please bottles biscuits Oh
Think, pair, share (pp.119-120)
Food safety has become one of the major worries for mankind. This worry has three major sources: the chemical contamination of agricultural products, the use of additives, preservatives and colourings in a large number of food products and the consumption of ready-made food.
Perhaps the first cause for worry about food safety is the highly intensive mode of farming and agribusiness now prevailing in industrialised countries. This has led big companies to use chemicals, fertilisers and pesticides to ensure maximum output. As a result, fruits and vegetables are contaminated by chemicals which may prove harmful to our health.
The second cause for concern is again related to mass production, and the need to keep products fresh and attractive. Consumer requirements have led manufacturers to introduce colourings, additives and preservatives. Some of them have been suspected of being dangerous while others have definitely been classified as harmful by independent research laboratories. Scientists maintain that some colourings and sugar substitutes can cause cancer, diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
Finally, fast food and ready-made meals have led people to take undesirable eating habits, like nibbling at work or at home, or having frequent snacks in front of the computer or the TV set. More worrying is the fact that the younger generation are the most prone to consume fast food and soft drinks. These eating habits, as shown in “advanced” countries especially, have caused a large part of the population to become overweight or obese, and to develop diseases like diabetes or high blood pressure. These are due to an excess consumption of animal fat and fried food, as well as sugar and salt.
In conclusion, the conjunction of contaminated agricultural products, processed foods and poor eating habits is indeed a good reason to worry about food safety and to take corrective measures to change or improve our attitudes to eating.
TAKE A BREAK (p.121)
Let the students describe the picture. Then elicit the humour in it.
Proverbs and sayings (p.121)
It’s no use crying over spilt milk. = It was a great pity that it happened, but there’s nothing we can do about it now. Don’t regret. Look to the future.
Equivalent proverb: What’s done cannot be undone.
Don’t teach your grandmother to suck eggs. = Don’t offer advice to those who are more experienced than you are. The saying is often used in the form of a retort. E.g. ‘Be careful how you use that chisel. It’s very sharp and may slip.’
‘You go and teach your grandmother to suck eggs.’
Gluttony kills more than the sword. = More people die from overeating than are killed in battle. This is a very old proverb, dating back to the times when gluttony was more common than it is today, and it was no rare thing for people to die of overeating.
You cannot make an omelet/omelette without breaking eggs.= You cannot expect to get something for nothing. You must be prepared to make sacrifices in order to get something done. E.g. ‘We shall be much more comfortable in our new house, but I’m afraid it’s not going to be as cheap to run as this one.’
‘You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs.’
You cannot sell the cow and drink the milk. = You cannot enjoy the s milk and have at the same time the advantage of the money got for the sale of the cow. In other words, you must have one thing or the other, not both.
RESEARCH AND REPORT (p.122)
Students can choose either assignment one or assignment two.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (p.123)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.123)
Preview the objectives of the section with the students.
Before listening (p.123)
1. The advertisement is about Omega brand watches. The watch is associated with a beautiful face.
3. Cindy Crawford, American top model
4. Possible answers: She is beautiful./ she is famous.
5. ‘Cindy Crawford’s choice’ / The students may have different opinions about the second part of the question.
6. There are many possible answers. Students should feel free to voice their opinions and thus start off the discussion about the theme of the unit.
As you listen (pp. 124-125)
Task 1 (p.124)
Please see the errata at the beginning of this book, and correct the mistake in the instruction before setting the students to task.
A. JE B. JE C.JE D.JE E. JE F.JA G.JA H. JE and JA
This may not be a consensus, but what’s important is the students to talk to justify their choices. Replay the dialogue as needed.
TASK 2 (p.124-125)
Possible answer. Students can come out with their own summary. Make sure you set the speaking time allocated.
Jenny and James are talking about the impact of advertising. The problem is whether or not advertising has a negative or a positive influence on consumers. Jenny is in not in favour of advertising whereas James is one of its supporters. At first James denies that advertising manipulates consumers. Then he admits that it does. In the end, both of them agree that manipulating people is wrong.
After listening (pp.125-126)
Let the students skim through the text in the coping box before setting them to the task.
Saying it in writing (p.127)
READING AND WRITING (pp.128- 131)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.128)
Let the students skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the objectives of this section.
Before reading (p.128)
The questions mostly involve the expression of personal opinions. So students should feel free to answer in any way they like as long as they justify their answers.
As you read (p.128)
Let the students skim through the text in the coping box before setting them to task.
Task 1 (p.129)
Brand: Toshiba - Advertised item: cooktop - Audience: Housewives, homemakers - The four expectations exploited: safety, the need to be up-to-date - energy - efficency - modernity.
Is the advert persuasive or not ?: Elicit students’ opinions. They don’t have to agree.
Task 2 (p.129)
A. Iron or steel pot. B. It’s safer and energy saving C. It works by creating a magnetic field that heats the inside of the pot instead of the cooking surface. D. regret
After reading (p.130)
This involves model writing. Refer the students to the advertisement on page 129.
Writing development (pp.130-131)
PROJECT OUTCOME (p.132)
The Story Behind Supermarket Success
I. Read the text carefully and circle the one answer (a,b, c, or d) which you think is the right one according to the text. (3 pts)
What does the author say about supermarkets?
They are more and more attractive.
Shoppers are sensitive to the way the products are placed on shelves.
Supermarkets do not sell vegetables and fresh fruit.
They should not sell sweets to children.
What does the writer imply about supermarkets.
Everyone buys basic food in them.
People walk quickly through their aisles because they are always under time pressure.
Good supermarkets are designed by clever architects.
Supermarket managers want their premises to be designed so as to make their customers buy more.
(Key: A-b , B-d)
II. Complete the following sentences with words or phrases from the text. (2,5 pts)
A product that sells very well is a …
A circular movement from left to right is a …
Food that everyone needs and buys is …
A person who makes a product is a …
A customer in a store or shop is a …
(Key: a. bestselling product , b. clockwise movement , c. basic food, d. manufacturer, e. shopper)
III. What do the words or phrases underlined in the text and reproduced here refer to? (2 pts)
(you) do §1
(ten-foot) one §3
them (because) §5
(Key: a. know , b. position c. display d. shelves
IV. Find in the text words or phrases whose meaning is opposite to the following: (2pts)
walk out § 1
ignore § 1
speed up § 3
d. slowly §3
(Key: a.enter, go into , b. pay attention to, c. slow down , d. quickly)
V. In the text below, add the appropriate ending to the words in brackets so that this text makes sense. (3.5 pts)
My favourite parts of the New York Times Sunday newspaper are the (advertise) because they exert a hind of hypnotic (fascinate). In the gift catalogue from the Z company of New York, you can find all (sort) of odd things. I once bought something from this catalogue. It was a little (read) light that you can clip into your book so as not to disturb anyone (sleep) in the same room. But it didn’t work: the light was feeble and, apart from the first two ( line), the rest of the page was left in (dark). I have seen more luminous insects !
(Key: 1. advertisement , 2. fascination 3. sorts, 4. reading , 5. sleeping , 6. lines 7. darkness)
VI. Look again at the text above and do this pronunciation task. Pick out four words ending with the /s/ sound and four other words ending with /z/sound. Place them them in the corresponding columns below. (2pts)
4. …. 1. …
(Key: /s/ parts, supplements, sorts, darkness, /others accepted/ this, luminous, insects)/z/ was, times, as, lines, shoppers, etc.)
Choose one topic (5 pts)
Write a twenty-line letter to your local newspaper to complain about an item widely advertised on TV which you bought but failed to work properly within two days of purchase. (Use the appropriate letter format.)
Write a short article (20 lines maximum) for publication in a weekly magazine) in which you argue against the construction of a big supermarket in your area, because small shops and businesses would die out.
UNIT FIVE: IT’S A GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND (pp.135-164)
Use the pictures to elicit the theme of the unit. Then refer the students to page 162 to get them acquainted with the project outcome.
LISTEN AND CONSIDER (pp.136-141)
Language outcomes (p.136)
Let the students skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the aims of the section..
1. They represent satellites 2. They are similar in the sense that they orbit the Earth. 3. They are different. One of them is a natural satellite and the other is an artificial satellite. 4. Elicit as much information as you can. 5.Yes, Alsat .
Let’s hear it (p.137)
Task 1 (p.137)
C.1 E.2 B.3 A.4 F.5 D.6
Task 2 (p.137)
A. It is 610 kms away from the Earth
B. It is roughly cylindrical in shape.
C. It is 13 m long.
D. It weighs more than 11 tons.
Around the text (pp.137-140)
Grammar Explorer (p.137)
A. They express purpose/function of objects.
B. The verbs which follow them either are in the infinitive or have the –ing form.
C. We can only use the preposition for.
Task 1 (p.138)
1. B 2. C 3. D 4. A 5.F 6.E
Students combine the sentences to get a description of a telescope.
Grammar explorer II (p.138)
Task 1 (p.138)
It is roughly cylindrical in shape. (before a preposition phrase)
It is 13 m long. (after a noun/ measurement)
Other possibilities: It has a cylindrical shape. Its shape is cylindrical.
A. How much does Sputnik I/Sputnik 2 weigh?
B. How far is the moon from the Earth?
C. How long does it take our planet to make one revolution round the sun?
D.How high is Mount Everest?
E. How tall was Yuri Garin?
F. How long … How wide - How deep…?
G. How fast does light travel?
N.B. Some of the words in the box can function both as adjectives and adverbs.
Task 1 (p.139)
Verbs Nouns Adjectives
Weigh, takes, travel Height, weight, length, depth.
Kilometres, metres. Hours, minutes, seconds High, tall, heavy, long, wide, deep
Task 2 (p.139)
1.B 2. A 3.C 4. E 5. D
Task 3 (p.140)
1. believed 2. Belief 3. Proved 4. Proof
Pronunciation and spelling (pp.140-141)
Tasks 1 and 2 (p.140)
Stress usually falls on the second syllable for verbs and on the first syllable for nouns.
Task 3 (140)
Stress shift: The stress pattern of the verbs and nouns are different. In verbs, it falls on the second syllable whereas in nouns it falls on the first syllable. In addition, the letter n is pronounced differently. Check the pronunciation of the words in the dictionary.
Task 4 (p.140-141)
Blue (corrective stress) - Russian (corrective stress)
Think, pair, share (p.141)
The Moon is an earth satellite orbiting our planet from a distance of 384,000kms on average, and its orbit is in a west-to-east direction. Its surface gravity is only 0.16 that of the Earth (one sixth), and it does not seem to have life on it, since it has neither atmosphere nor water. Minimum and maximum temperatures on it are wide apart, with +110˚C on the sunlit side and –170˚C in lunar nights. The geology of this satellite is rock only, and its age is about 4,6 billion years.
Plans to reach the Moon on space crafts have been on scientists’ minds since early 20th century. But they became more concrete when the Russians launched space crafts Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 in 1957, the second one carrying dog Laika. In 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth, followed by the American astronaut John Glenn in 1962. Finally, America won the honour of reaching the Moon before Russia, when Neil Armstrong set foot on it on July 21st 1969.
There are at present plans to build a space base on the Moon, to set a giant telescope and launch space ships from there to distant planets, and perhaps to other solar systems.
READ AND CONSIDER (p.142)
Language outcomes (p.142)
Let students skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the objectives of this section.
1. Pluto is no longer considered a planet. According to experts, it’s just a member of an asteroid belt beyond Neptune, along with 12 newly discovered mini-worlds.
2. One year / 365 1/4 days
3. Possible answer: Astronomy is a science whereas astrology is a pseudo-science. The former studies the sun, the moon, stars and planets to get information about them whereas the latter observes them with the belief that their positions will tell about man’s destiny.
Taking a closer look (p.142)
Task 1 (p.142)
Start from bottom left :
Sun- 1.Mercury, 2.Venus, 3. Earth (Moon in the black box) , 4.Mars, 5. Jupiter, 6. Saturn , 7. Uranus, 8. Neptune 9. Pluto is no longer considered a planet.
Task 2 (p.142)
A. meteors- comets- asteriods- satellites/moons- planets – stars.
B. The moon orbits the earth whereas the planets orbits the sun.
C. The heavenly bodies.
D. The heat energy and light energy make life possible on Earth.
E. They are likened to huge mirrors because they reflect the light from the sun.
Task 3 (p.142)
10,000 –32 X 5/9 27,000,000 –32 X 5/9
Around the text (pp. 145-148)
Grammar explorer I (p.145)
Comparatives of adjectives
Comparatives of superiority:
q They are far more remote from us than any other heavenly bodies.
q More distant planets have larger orbits
Comparatives of equality:
Elicit an example
Comparatives of inferiority:
q Moving around some of the planets are smaller balls …
q You might also catch a glimpse of swarms of even smaller particles…
q Their light is less intense than that of the sun.
Comparatives of adverbs
q More distant planets have larger orbits and travel far more slowly.
q More distant planets have larger orbits and travel less quickly.
q More distant planets have larger orbits and don’t travel as quickly as the ones which are close to the sun.
Task 2 (p.145)
There are many possible answers.
E.g. The Earth is more remote/distant from the sun than Mercury.
Mercury is closer/nearer to the sun than the Earth.
The information in the box is taken from the Hutchinson Encyclopaedia.
Grammar explorer II (p.146)
Task 1 (p.146)
‘all travelling in the same direction’ (§1)
Elicit other examples with other link words: E.g. both… and…, neither… nor, similar to, like …
q Compared with the other stars, the sun is of average size, but it is a giant in comparison with even the largest planets.
q The planets of the solar system are different from the distant stars.
q Unlike stars, which shine with their own light, the planets give off no light of their own.
q Jupiter, for example, takes more than eleventh Earth years to make one complete revolution around the sun while Earth makes its path around the just in just 365 ¼ days….
Elicit other examples from the students.
Comparing/contrasting terms to use within a clause.
1. A and B are the same/alike/similar/comparable.
2. Both A and B are … /Neither A nor B is …
3. A and B are different/unlike/ disimilar.
4. A is the same as/ similar to/ like /resembles B.
5. A is as _____ as B.
6. A differs/ is different from B.
Link words to use between clauses, sentences and paragraphs
Category Coordinators Subordinators Transition words
Similarity And Likewise, similarly, also, too
Difference But, yet While, whereas, However, in contrast, conversely
on the other hand, contrary to …
Grammar explorer III (p.146)
A. The sentences express supposition/hypothesis.
B. Past simple + would+verb The author is just supposing/imagining things.
Grammar explorer IV (p.146)
A. The verb travel.
B. Dynamic/action verbs
D. Stative verbs
E. See Grammar Reference p.223.
A. Well, because now I understand astronomy is important.
A: Sorry I don’t understand what you mean.
A: Oh , I see that you have a telescope in your attic.
B. Actually, I didn’t buy it. You know, it used to belong to my grandfather. I still remember the day when he gave it to me.
Vocabulary explorer (p.147)
Task 1 (p.147)
A. tiny B. recognize C. streaming D. catch a glimpse E. radiating F. twinkling G. give off H. huge I. speeding
Task 2 (p.148)
Astrologist - astronomer - astrophysicist -observers - scientist- psychologist
Pronunciation and spelling (p.148)
Task 1 (p.148)
First rule: E.g. Cats, seeds, cameras …
Second rule: Potatoes, buses, boxes, matches, bushes …
Third rule: datum- data, stimulus- stimuli …
Fourth rule: wife- wives, sheaf-sheaves
Fifth rule: belief- beliefs, proof-proofs …
Task 2 (p.148)
Theories - categories - theses men - women – beliefs – men- women –facts- origins – hypotheses.
/s/ /z/ /z/
Think, pair, share (p.149)
I sometimes think with awe about the possible consequences for life on earth if a comet collided with our planet. I can imagine it hurtling through the atmosphere before it makes its terrible impact on some part of a continent. Scientists do say that a similar incident took place many thousand years ago, and provoked the extinction of many giant animal species, including dinosaurs.
An enormous crater would form, and possibly cause a volcanic eruption which would send a heavy layer of particles and ash high up in the sky to stop the sun rays from reaching the Earth. Our planet would then be in the dark for many years, and consequently the temperatures would drop considerably.
A change in the climate could indeed occur, rainfalls and snowfalls would be frequent, heavy and long lasting, and floods would result from them; the sea level would probably rise, and cause some flat regions of the Earth to be totally immersed.
Another possible consequence of the impact would be a gigantic earthquake which would destroy many inhabited areas and kill a huge number of people. If the impact were near an ocean, a tsunami could develop and flood vast areas of flat land, causing many people to die or become homeless.
Facts in the past have shown that a disaster like an impact of a heavenly body on Earth could destroy life, or at least alter living conditions dramatically. The same could be repeated if another collision occured. This is why scientists are thinking up space programmes to find ways of preventing another accident of this kind.
TAKE A BREAK (p.150)
A. 1. b saw stars 2. a was born under an unlucky star 3. c Thank his lucky star
B. 1= a over the moon 2= d mooning over 3= b once in a blue moon 4= c crying for the moon
Here are some questions that can be asked to the students.
1. Explain how, in the first two lines, the poet manages to give us a history of the means of transport.
2. What comparison helps us to understand the challenges that must be met by the first settlers on other planets?
3. How can you tell that the author expects journeys through space to be quick?
4. How does the author show that he expects mostly younger people to journey out into space?
5. Americans are always asked, in Autumn, to ‘mail early for Christmas’. How is this expression related to the title of the poem?
RESEARCH AND REPORT (p.151)
Assignment 1 (p.151)
The competition can be organized in the form of a show asking questions like: Who was the astronomer who said that the earth was flat? What’s the title of the book that he is best known for? Where was Ptolemy born? What was his nationality? The students will play the roles of host and guest in the show.
Assignment 2 (p.151)
This assignment can take the form of a demonstration class or a news reading.
Assignment 2 (p.151)
Eclipse: passage of an astronomical body through the shadow of another. The term is usually used for solar and lunar eclipses, which may be either partial or total, but may also refer to other bodies, for example, to an eclipse of Jupiter’s satellites by Jupiter itself. An eclipse of a star by a body in the Solar System is also called an occultation.
A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun as seen from Earth, and can happen only at new Moon. During a total eclipse the Sun’s corona can be seen. A total solar eclipse can last up to 7.5 minutes. When the Moon is at its farthest from the Earth it does not completely cover the face of the Sun, leaving a ring of sunlight visible. This is an annular eclipse. Between two and five solar eclipses occur each year but each is visible only from a specific area. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the shadow of the Earth, becoming dim until emerging from the shadow. Lunar eclipses may be partial or total, and they can happen only at full Moon. Total lunar eclipses last up to 100 minutes; the maximum number each year is three.
A total solar eclipse visible from southwestern England took place on 11 August 1999 and lasted for two minutes. This was the first total solar eclipse to be visible from the UK since 1927, the next will be in 2090.
(From the Huchinson Encylopedia, 2001 Edition)
Assignment 3 (p.151)
The etymology of the words is Arabic.
Assignment 4 (p.151)
E.g. One of the myths says that the Earth stands on a bull’s horns.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (p.152)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.152)
Let the students skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the objectives of the section.
Before listening (p.152)
1. ET stands for extra-terrestrial. Students have already come across this term.
Questions 2, 3 and 4 are open-ended questions. There are many possible answers.
5. See text on science-fiction in SE2 textbook.
As you listen (p.153)
Have students skim through the text in the coping box before setting them to task.
Task 1 (p.153)
The clues are not necessarily the ones that students will identify:
a. They work for the S.E.T.I(Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence)
b. Beyond the solar system perhaps even beyond the Milky Way
c. For many centuries we were ignorant of what we call the New World today.
d. The S.E.T.I researchers are determined to distance themselves from science fiction and fantasy.
Task 2 (p.153)
Students will discuss the following statement:
‘That would shed light on the origin, the nature and the future of the universe as a whole.’ Students don’t have to agree on one single answer.
After listening (p.154)
Students skim through the text in the coping box. Engage a discussion with the students to check that they have inderstood the main ways of expressing agreement or disagreement with stative verbs. (See Coping box, p.154.)
Task 1 (p.154)
Allocate the necessary time to the students to prepare their dialogues.
A: Is what they telling us about space laboratories true?
B: I (don’t) think so.
Task 2 (p.154)
The task can be done in groups. Let the groups brainstorm one of the topics before they engage in dialogue. Make sure the students use the right tenses.
Saying it in writing (p.155)
E.g. I think that astronomy is one of the most useful sciences today. For one thing, it’s thanks to astronomy that we can predict such catastrophes as tsunamis and hurricanes. Right now as I ‘m speaking to you there are satellites hovering above us in the skies watching for any hurricane that may hit us….
Reading and writing (p.156)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.156)
Let the students skim through the preview. Then interact with students to make explicit the objectives of the section.
Before reading (p.156)
Task 1 (p.156)
The answer is C. because the paragraph in question is a lead-in. Its purpose is to entice the reader to read the whole article or news story. It is signed by a journalist by the name David Grinspoon.
Task 2 (p.156)
It fits in the beginning because “why” indicates that a rhetorical question is asked and we expect that it will be answered in what comes next.
Task 3 (p.156)
An answer/ a discussion of the issue raised in the lead-in.
N.B. Students will suggest answers to the three questions, but try not to answer them at this stage. They will check their answers while doing task 1 in the as-you-read rubric.
As you read (p.157)
Task 1 (p.157)
Students will skim through the rest of the text to check the guesses they have made in the before-reading task.
Task 2 (p.158)
A. The NASA fired a copper explosive barrel in the path of Tempel 1 in order to learn about the impact that a collision with comets might have on our planet. Or
….in order to learn about the life secrets that lie within the hole of the comet.
B. Deep impact
C. Paragraph 5
D. The dinosaurs would not have disappeared if they had known how to divert the course of comets. The space programme is vital because it can help avoid the kind of collision that caused the disappearance of dinosaurs.
Tasks 3 and 4 (pp.158-159)
Crater = hole (relation of synonymy); Mixed reactions = not complelety positive/good. The three sentences give clues in three different ways: not really fine (not good); analogy and a rhetorical question. Hurt: (word coming in topic sentence) = doing harm (idiomatic expression in the concluding sentence) The parallel that the author draws between the mission and digging for sand specimens in a beach provides another clue for understanding the meaning of the word.
Demolish = destroy (relation of synonymy) Ice crust = frozen rock (synonymy) Lacked =/= had The meaning of lack can be guessed either from the context of the sentence “The dinosaurs disappeared because they lacked a space programme.” It also also guessed from the concluding sentence of the paragraph “ … because we have knowledge….)
After reading (p.159)
1. The decision to shoot at the comet is unreasonable/too quick and can have bad consequences.
2. There is no need to be worried about the shooting at the comet because it is as harmless as picking up a few sand specimen for study.
Or the mission is totally harmless because …
3. Human life can’t be destroyed by the collision of our planet with a comet because we know how to divert their course.
Task 2 (p.159)
A.Type of discourse: Argumentative
B.Function: Persuading the reader about the importance of a space programme.
C.Category of reasoning: It is mainly a reasoning based on analogy
Writing development (pp.160 –161)
You often hear people say, ‘The budget devoted to space programmes is wasted money.’ Many people support this statement by saying that these huge amounts can be invested in projects to combat diseases. Likewise, many other people consider that space exploration is a wild dream and that the money spent on these explorations is needed to relieve poverty in Africa. Though I understand that there is an urgency to fight diseases and relieve poverty in our continent, I don’t think it is right to abandon investment in space explorations. Why?
In the first place, many of the advances made in medicine are indirectly the result of space exploration. For instance, …
Project outcome (p.162)
Text 5 (p.36) The Martians are coming
I. Read the text carefully and answer with True or False(3 pts)
The radio programme was broadcast on Halloween day.
The news announcers were real actors.
An announcement was made before the show began that the programme was unreal.
Everybody was trying to leave the town by car.
The Americans killed the Martians with poisonous gas.
The programme was about London in the 1890s.
(Answers: aF,bT,cT, dF,eF,fF)
II. What is the main idea of this text? Justify your choice.( 1.5pts)
Halloween eve is a good night to scare people.
People are ready to believe anything that seems realistic to them.
A Martian invasion could cause much panic among people.
(Answer: b). a and c are also acceptable provided the choice is justified.
III. What do these words refer to in the text? (2 pts)
One (a good one) §1
it (seem) §1
their (suitcases) §3
others (tried) §3
(Answers: a: story, b: the show, c: people, d: people)
IV. Use of English:
A/ Find in the text a synonym for each of the following words (3pts)
tried § 3
intruders (from outer space) § 3
(Answers: a:setting, b:scary/terrifying, c: attempted, d: aliens)
B/ Complete these sentences with words or expressions from the box below. Use each word or expression at least once (3,5pts)
Should ; don’t have to ; didn’t have to; must ; have to ; had to; mustn’t
You……………..do your homework now if you don’t want to
I really ………….remember to send my brother a birthday card
My parents say I …………..be home by 8 o’clock at the latest
You………………buy a monolingual dictionary. You can refer to it every time you are unsure of what a word means
You…………….come into my room without knocking
I didn’t come to your birthday because I ………………stay at home with my mother who was ill
(Answers: a: don’t have to, b: must, c: have to, d: should, e: mustn’t, f: had to)
C/ Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. Use the passive voice. You must use between two and five words (1pt)
Welles made some changes in the original story
Some changes……………….by Welles in the original story
Somebody had eaten all the food by the time we arrives
All the food………………..by the time we arrived
Our teacher gave us some good advice to help us pass the Baccalauréat exam
We…………………some good advice by our teacher to help us pass the Baccalauréat exam
When we woke up, we discovered that the wind had blown down a large tree during the night
When we woke up, we discovered that a large tree…………….
(Answers: a: were made, b: had been eaten, c: were given, d: had been blown down)
D/ Find the corresponding verb or noun to the following words (1 pt)
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
(Answers: a: adapt, b: invade, c: decision, d: scare, e: smell f: interruption, g: fiction, h: description)
V- Writing: Write a twenty-line essay on ONE of the following topics (5 pts)
A/ Imagine the Martians invaded the planet Earth. What do you think would surprise them about our lives, and what would they change?
B/ Some people say that reading science fiction stories helps to imagine new worlds and create new ways of life. Do you agree with this statement?
Time for … (p.164)
UNIT SIX: KEEP COOL (pp. 165- 195)
Introduce the theme of the unit by asking questions about the two pictures. Refer the students to the project outcome on page 193.
Listen and consider (pp.166-170)
Language outcomes p.166.
Students will get acquainted with the language outcomes by skimming through the text of the preview.
Getting started (p.166)
1. Biyouna, Salah, Bakhta …
The other questions are open-ended.
Let’s hear it (p.167)
Task 1 (p.167)
1.C 2.B 3. A 4.D 5. E
Task 2 (p.167)
Students don’t have to agree on the statements.
Around the text (pp.167-168)
Grammar explorer I (p.167)
1. The 2. the 3. the 4. zero article 5. zero article 6.a 7. zero article 8. the 9.a 10. a 11. zero article 12.an
Grammar explorer II (p.168)
Task 1 (p.168)
A. must = obligation mustn’t= prohibition
B. have to =necessity
C. don’t have to= lack of obligation
D. Should = advice
E. Ought to= advice
Task 2 (p.168)
Make sure you give time to students to prepare the dialogue before they act it out.
Vocabulary explorer (p.169)
Tasks1 and 2 (p.169)
Noun Adjective Noun Adjective
Task 3 (p.169)
Broaden - deepen – widen – shorten – darken – roughen – soften
Please note that humanity and humour belong to neither category.
Humour broadens our minds because it allows us to see the funny side of life. Moreover it can deepen and widen our emotional lives since it develops in us that capacity to laugh at ourselves. Without it, our life expectancy would shorten and our prospects would darken. More importantly, while hardships roughens our lives, humour softens them.
Task 4 (p.170)
Some of the items can be figure either in the positive or negative column. It depends on how you look at things.
Noun Adjective Noun adjective
Self-evident and self-portrait belong to neither category whereas some of the other items can belong to either category depending on the student’s point of view.
Task 5 (p.170)
1. Self-educated 2. self-effacing 3. self-control 4. self-help 5. self-esteem 6. self-reliance 7. self-denial/self-sacrifice
Pronunciation and spelling (p.171)
Tasks 1 and 2 (p.171)
Sound /h/ in accented words and in initial position.
Henry – heroes – heroines – humanity – history – homeland - heart
Sound /h/ in unaccented words
Honourable – honest- humour
Task 3 (p.171)
The sound-spelling link = 4 letters for two sounds
Task 4 (p.171)
Use the weak form of “of” except for made of where the strong form of of must be used .
Think, pair, share (p.172)
I’m very sorry to hear that you are having difficulty coping with stress and anxiety, due to the forthcoming final examination. I more than sympathise with your being depressed. Let me tell you however that taking a few commonsense steps would restore confidence and cheerfulness in you.
I think you are working too hard, and not taking enough time for breaks. Do you know that cramming and doing exercises endlessly produce more anxiety in you? That’s why you don’t feel you have time to spare for your friends, and to enjoy some of the pleasures of life you are entitled to.
So, as I said, you should relax and sleep regularly, meanwhile leaving your brain to process the hardest points of lessons and activities. You should go out for walks or practise some sport everyday to help you relax. You ought not to worry constantly about the time when your exam occurs, lest you would lose your concentration on the appointed day.
Think that after all, you have reached a good level of competence, and that you have enough strategies at this stage to decide how to organise your work. Let me tell you again that when the exam comes, always start with the things you can do easily and leave time for the most tricky parts.
I’m sure that when the time comes, you will be able to overcome your stress and perform quite successfully.
I wish you all the best.
Reading and writing (pp.173-178)
Language outcomes (p.173)
Let students skim through the preview to get them acquainted with the objectives of the section.
1. The lady is comforting the weeping child. You can take the opportunity to ask other questions. E.g. Who is the lady?
Questions 2-6 are open-ended questions.
Taking a closer look (p.174)
Tasks 1 and 2 (p.174)
1. Nearly all of them.
2. The great majority of them would rather let all of it out and say what they feel than bottle it up inside and make matters worse.
3. They give little attention to people who complain in public.
4. They hug one another when they score a goal.
5. The American people are extrovert because they show their feelings whereas the British are both introvert and phlegmatic. The British tend to hide their feelings and are not easily moved. This is not necessarily the way students will formulate the answer.
N.B Let students c²heck up the meaning of the words (extrovert, introvert and phlegmatic) if necessary.
Make sure you give students the necessary time to think over the second part of task 2 before you set them to task.
Around the text (p.175)
Grammar explorer (p.175)
Sentences expressing likes and dislikes:
q Almost all of them enjoy talking about their own experiences.
q (…) a national tendency to avoid showing strong emotion (…)
q The British like to keep a stiff upper lip.
q Many elderly people do not like to see this.
Sentences expressing preferences:
q Nearly all Americans believe that it is better to share what they think or feel.
q When some of them are upset they prefer to cry rather than retain their tears.
q The great majority of them would rather let all of it out and say what they feel than bottle it up inside and make matters worse.
q They prefer hiding them (their feelings).
A. The form of the verbs are: -ing , the to-infinitive or the infinitive without to.
B. and C. The verbs enjoy, dislike, don’t mind and avoid are always followed by a gerund whereas like, love, hate and can’t stand, prefer can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive.
D. It is better is followed by the to-infinitive whereas rather is followed by an infinitive without to.
Tasks 2 and 3 (p.176)
Students follow the model provided in the textbook. Provide context to make the task more communicative. E.g. Making students play the role of journalist/ interviewer ( conducting a survey about spare time activities) and that of interviewee.
Grammar explorer II (p.176)
Task 1 (p.175)
q Women sometimes kiss each other on the cheek as a greeting.
q Players now hug one another when they score.
A. They are double/compound pronouns used as object .
B. They express reciprocity.
C. One another is used with the same meaning as each other. The former is used in preference to each other when reference is made to more than two persons.
D. Give names to the players and the women in the sentences which the students have picked up to make the reciprocal relationships more explicit.
E.g. Jane and Maud kiss other other on the cheek.
q Jane kisses Maud. Maud kisses Jane. (repetition of the structure)
Task 2 (p.177)
1. each other 2. each other 3. each other 4. one another 5. one another 6. one another
Grammar explorer III
Task 1 (p.177)
q Nearly all Americans believe …
q A great many of them expect …
q Almost all of them enjoy talking …
q When some of them are upset …
q Few Americans consider it bad to show…
q Few British people would dare venture even a little anger …
q Many British youths now show feelings …
Elicit other quantifiers before students move to the second part of the task.
See Grammar Reference pp. 216-217.
Task 2 (p.178)
1. many/ a great many 2. some 3. a little 4. a little 5. most / nearly all 6. all 7. few 8. many/some 9. much 10. little
Vocabulary explorer (p.178)
Task 1 (p.178)
A. Let all of it out: to air / express one’s feelings angrily
B. bottle it up: to hide/not show one’s feelings
C. to show no emotion, sign of fear or anxiety
D. to show even a little anger
E. to avoid interfering with other people’s problems/business
Task 2 (p.178)
Adjectives Adverbs Nouns
Pronunciation and spelling (p.179)
Task 1 (p.179)
/d/ /d/ /t/
proved, involved, televised Separated/married
Think, pair, share (pp.180-181)
Though not necessarily applying to Algerians, the text below could be used as a model.
The death of a close friend or a relative, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an accident, and other fatalities are likely to generate different feelings and emotions in people.
Actually the difference in reaction is more particularly a question of gender. Men will tend to hide their grief over the death of somebody they know, or their awe when they witness a tragedy; during a natural disaster, they will try not to panic and control their emotions; instead, they will react by taking steps to protect their families and neighbours. Women will show their emotions more openly. They will express their sadness and mourning, and cry profusely when they learn about a relative’s death. Likewise, they will be rather shocked and terrified when they see an accident in which there are casualties. Finally, they are likely lose their self- control, and fail to take the right decisions to protect themselves in an emergency.
The difference in response regarding the expression of love and affection will most likely follow the same pattern. Men always try to avoid excessive sentimentality. They generally avoid showing in verbal manner too much emotion and feelings to their families and friends; they will express their care in a different way; for instance by showing concern, offering help or giving presents. Women are again prone to showing their feelings more openly. They would more often than not use terms of endearment, and they often hug and kiss family members, especially children.
The differing levels of sensitivity between men and women concerning the facts of life is probably the reason why their marks of sympathy and affection are dissimilar. But the male and female attitudes are complementary, and both necessary for good human interaction.
TAKE A BREAK (p.181)
Tasks 1 and 2
1- B 2.F 3.A 4.D 5. C 6.E
Try to elicit the humorous/sarcastic dimension of the cartoon before setting students to task.
Provide some useful language to students if necessary.
E.g. Do you know the one about the two lumberjacks who…?
One day, …
RESEARCH AND REPORT (p.182)
Tasks 1 and 2
As suggested in task 2 the FAQ web page can be presented in the form of a class wallsheet. The pronunciation of FAQ is /ef ei kju’/ .
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (p.183)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.183)
Let students skim through the text in the preview to get acquainted with the objectives of the section.
Before listening (p.183)
All the questions in this rubric are open-ended questions meant to activate background knowledge and trigger off interest in the topic of the follow-up reading passage.
As you listen (p.184)
Task 1 (p.184)
A.1. B. 4. C .2 D .3
Task 2 (p.184)
A. Introduction: (Rhetorical questions to attract attention) How…? Why…? Then link words : first, then, after that, finally.
B. The link words are also called sequencers. They indicate the order in which the lecture will be delivered.
C. Students won’t reproduce the lecture verbatim.
D. S/He won’t talk about anything. S/He will simply wait for her/his audience to hand in the handouts (filled in) and comment upon them.
Tasks 3 and 4 (p.184)
1. B 2.D 3.A 4.F 5.C 6.E
Task 5 (p.185)
Summary B is the best one. It states both the main idea (how to make friends) and the lecturer’s attitude.
After listening (p.185)
A. The lecturer has not explicitly stated what he thinks is the ideal way of making friends. But he has implied it through the use of her/his own words.
B. The adjectives in task 3 (As you listen) refer to the six values that s/he considers as important for making friends.
C. This is an open-ended question.
Task 2 (p.185)
F. Body §1
A. Body §2
C. Body §3
The irrelevant paragraph is D.
A. Repetition of the words love, knoweledge and pity
B. The key words , pride, national anthem are not included in the introduction.
C. The answer is yes. Introduction: Three passions : longing for love – search for knowledge – pity for the suffering of mankind.
We can deduce from this that the technique of developing the speech is by listing. We can expect that the speaker will develop the three passions in the order in which they are listed.
D. We can add link words such as In the first place, To begin with, To start with, Next, Also, In addition, Moreover …
E.g. In the first place, I have sought for love. I have sought for it first because it brings happiness – happiness so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. Next I have searched for it because it helps me not feel alone. Finally, I have search for it because in the union of love, I have seen the vision of the heavens that saints and poets have imagined.
I have also searched for knowledge. …
To sum up /in short/ in conclusion/to conclude/ this has been my life. ...
Saying it in writing (p.187)
The students will use Bertrand Russel’s text as a model.
Reading and writing (pp.188-192)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.188)
Students will skim through the preview to get acquainted with the objectives in the section.
1. The horse, the cow and the sheep are real whereas the dragon, the unicorn and the Loch Ness monster are mythical.
2. Mythical beasts are generally found in folk tales.
3. This is an open-ended question. It may lead to a discussion of readers’ emotional/intellectual responses.
As you read (p.189)
A.While he was having breakfast, he looked from the window and saw a white unicorn in the garden. (Reference question)
B. They are not. (Inference question) This answer can be infered from the following sentences: She opened an unfriendly eye . She turned her back on him.
C. This means the same as ‘ we shall see who will put the other in a mental institution’. (Inference)
D. The police and a psychiatrist (Reference)
E. When the policemen and the psychiatrist arrived, they sat down in chairs and looked at her. (Reference)
F. They looked at her with great interest because they thought that it was she who was mad. She was probably talking excitedly about her husband.
G. (Inference) The moral that the author wants to illustrate through his story could be something along these lines.
q If you set a trap, you could be caught by it;
q Seemingly naive people may prove more clever than you think;
q Don’t shout ‘victory!’ before you bring your opponent to the
q Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched, i.e.,
It is a mistake to assume that because your hen is sitting on a dozen eggs you will have twelve chickens, since some, perhaps all of them, may be bad and not hatch. So never be too optimistic about anything; wait till your difficulties are over before you boast of success. The wife is too triumphant. She thought that she could easily put her husband in a madhouse, but the situation was completely reversed at the end of the story because it was she who was taken to the asylum.
The other proverbs which can illustrate the story are:
Catch your bear before you sell its skin.
Do not hallooo till you are out of the wood.
First catch your hare
Never spend your money before you have it.
There’s many a slip ‘twixt the cup and the lip.
Task 1 (pp.189-190)
A. D and E .See the answers to the questions in task 1 above.
C. Reference questions are easier to answer because they refer directly to the text.
D. By ‘reading between the lines’, by expliciting what is just implied. Refer to the text in the coping box on page 189.
Task 2 (p.191)
A. He starts and ends his story as if it were a folk/fairytale. It starts with “once upon time” and ends it with “lived happily ever after”.
B. Traditional fairy tales usually shows young characters in love with each other whereas Thurber”s story represents a middle-aged couple. The theme of traditional fairytales is that of love and marriage while that of Thurber is separation. The language used is modern, colloquial English whereas the language used in traditional fairy tales is rather archaic.
C. The question is open to debate. Students can differ in their opinions.
D. and E. There are open-ended questions.
F. The best two answers are fantastic and comic. But opinions may differ.
Task 3 (p.192)
What matters in this task is the justification. All choices can be justified.
Writing development (p.192)
Follow the procedure in the textbook.
Project outcome (p.193)
Time for… (p.195)